TCJMS   8th Grade Science

Sludge Project and Lab Report

General Instructions:

The sludge project is an in-class challenge to take a mixture of five substances (a sludge) and separate and identify the individual substances using techniques used in chapters 1-5.  For this project, you will work with your normal experiment groups.  All experiments, techniques, and lab reports are done in class.  If you do not finish in class by the due date, then you must do the rest at home.


In order to separate and identify the components of the sludge, you will need to be familiar with the following techniques:
a.  Density Measurements
b.  Filtration
c.  Evaporation
d.  Fractional Distillation
e.  Fractional Crytallization
f.  Flammability
g.  Solubility Measurement.

What to Hand in for a Grade:

A complete lab report (a good job will need 10-15 pages) including:
  • Introduction  ( 5 points)
  • A diagram showing the order that you split up the sludge.  ( 5 points)
  • How you separated each substance.  One lab report for each separation. (Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusions). (35 points)
  • How you identified (or tried to identify) each substance.  One lab report for each identification.  (Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusions).  The more you justify your identification and the less you guess, the more credit you will get. (35 points)
  • Additional problems answered:    (20 points)
    • Explain how you would separate each of the following.  Include details of the lab apparatus you would use.
    1. Sand from Water.
    2. Salt from Water.
    3. Sand from Salt.
    4. Water from Ethanol.
    5. Steam from Air.
    • For each method below, give two substances that can be separated using the method, state the most important characteristic property involved in using the method, and explain the lab procedure used to accomplish the method.
        1. Fractional Distillation.
        2. Fractional Crystallization.
        3. Evaporation.
        4. Filtration.
        5. Density Measurements.


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